12 Misunderstandings Of Kin Selection

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Sare jahan se acha hindustan hamara. Persistent Misunderstandings of Inclusive Fitness and Kin Selection: Their Ubiquitous Appearance in Social Psychology Textbooks Justin H. Park, Department of Psychology, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

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Evolutionary origins of stigmatization: The functions of social exclusion

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Cultural transmission and the evolution of cooperative behavior

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you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at.
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Sixteen common misconceptions about the evolution of cooperation in humans

'.. The occurrence of cooperation poses a problem for the biological and social sciences. However, many aspects of the biological and social science literatures on this subject have developed relatively independently, with a lack of interaction. This has led to a number of misunderstandings with regard ..'
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The occurrence of cooperation poses a problem for the biological and social sciences. However, many aspects of the biological and social science literatures on this subject have developed relatively independently, with a lack of interaction. This has led to a number of misunderstandings with regard to how natural selection operates and the conditions under which cooperation can be favoured. Our aim here is to provide an accessible overview of social evolution theory and the evolutionary work on cooperation, emphasising common misconceptions.

Does attitude similarity serve as a heuristic cue for kinship? Evidence of an implicit cognitive association

'.. Using methods of experimental cognitive psychology, we tested the hypothesis that attitude similarity serves as a heuristic cue signaling kinship, which may motivate kin-recognition responses (e.g., prosocial behavior) even to unrelated individuals. The experiment employed a reaction-time methodolog ..'
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Using methods of experimental cognitive psychology, we tested the hypothesis that attitude similarity serves as a heuristic cue signaling kinship, which may motivate kin-recognition responses (e.g., prosocial behavior) even to unrelated individuals. The experiment employed a reaction-time methodology to assess cognitive associations between specific target individuals and kinship cognitions. Results revealed that, relative to targets with dissimilar attitudes, attitudinally similar targets were automatically linked to kinship cognitions. This effect was especially strong among perceivers who more strongly trusted their intuitions, indicating that the similarity–kinship connection is based on heuristic impressions, not rational decision making. Additional results showed that the activation of kinship cognitions was correlated with perceivers ’ willingness to help similar others. These findings add to our understanding of proximate mechanisms linked to kin selection processes and implicate the role of kinship processes in prosocial behavior toward unrelated strangers as well.

Computer graphic studies of the role of facial similarity in judgements of attractiveness

- Current Psychology: Developmental, Learning, Personality, Social, 1999
'.. Anecdotally, spouses are often said to resemble one another. This study investigates the effects of similarity between participants and stimuli on judgements of facial attractiveness: does “like prefer like”? Using computer graphic techniques, opposite sex facial stimuli were generated from subjects ..'
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Anecdotally, spouses are often said to resemble one another. This study investigates the effects of similarity between participants and stimuli on judgements of facial attractiveness: does “like prefer like”? Using computer graphic techniques, opposite sex facial stimuli were generated from subjects ’ photographs. Experiment 1 showed a correlation between attractiveness and similarity but the effect can be explained by the attractiveness of average faces. Beyond this, there was a trend for individual subjects to rate opposite sex images with a similar face shape to their own face as more attractive than other subjects. Experiment 2 allowed subjects to interactively manipu-late an opposite sex facial image along a continuum from a self-similar shape, through an average face shape, to a face with opposite characteristics. No significant prefer-ences for self-similar or opposite characteristics were found. Preferences for average faces are stronger than preferences for self-similar faces. Cross-population studies indicate that facial attractiveness reflects features that in-dicate good genetic quality, reproductive potential, and the likelihood of pro-social parenting behaviours, not arbitrary cultural values (Perrett et al., 1994; Jones 1995;
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Internal regulatory variables and the design of human motivation: a computational and evolutionary approach

Misunderstandings
- In Handbook of approach and avoidance motivation, 2008
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The evolutionary origin and elaboration of sociality in the aculeate Hymenoptera: maternal effects, sib-social effects, and heterochrony. The Quarterly Review of Biology 80

'.. sib-social care, subsociality We discuss the evolutionary origin and elaboration of sociality using an indirect genetic effects perspective. Indirect genetic effects models simultaneously consider zygotic genes, genes expressed in social partners (especially mothers and siblings), and the interactio ..'
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sib-social care, subsociality We discuss the evolutionary origin and elaboration of sociality using an indirect genetic effects perspective. Indirect genetic effects models simultaneously consider zygotic genes, genes expressed in social partners (especially mothers and siblings), and the interactions between them. Incorporation of these diverse genetic effects should lead to more realistic models of social evolution. We first review haplodiploidy as a factor that promotes the evolution of eusociality. Social insect biologists have doubted the importance of relatedness asymmetry caused by haplodiploidy and focused on other predisposing factors such as maternal care. However, indirect effects theory shows that maternal care evolves more readily in haplodiploids, especially with inbreeding and despite multiple mating. Because extended maternal care is believed to be a precondition for the evolution of eusociality, the evolutionary bias towards maternal care in haplodiploids may result in a further bias towards eusociality in these groups. Next, we compare kin selection and parental manipulation and then briefly review additional hypoth-eses for the evolutionary origin of eusociality. We present a verbal model for the evolutionary origin and elaboration of sib-social care from maternal care based on the modification of the timing of
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Evolutionary theory and the ultimate-proximate distinction in the human behavioral sciences

'.. To properly understand behavior, we must obtain both ultimate and proximate explanations. Put briefly, ultimate explanations are concerned with why a behavior exists, and proximate explanations are concerned with how it works. These two types of explanation are complementary and the distinction is c ..'
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To properly understand behavior, we must obtain both ultimate and proximate explanations. Put briefly, ultimate explanations are concerned with why a behavior exists, and proximate explanations are concerned with how it works. These two types of explanation are complementary and the distinction is critical to evolutionary explanation. We are concerned that they have become conflated in some areas of the evolutionary literature on human behavior. This article brings attention to these issues. We focus on three specific areas: the evolution of cooperation, transmitted culture, and epigenetics. We do this to avoid confusion and wasted effort—dangers that are particularly acute in interdisciplinary research. Throughout this article, we suggest ways in which misunderstanding may be avoided in the future. Keywords
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Replicators Don't!

'.. Replicators don't. Replicate, that is. This is the shocking conclusion to which I have been forced by my attempt to figure out what precisely Richard Dawkins means by the term 'replicator'. Actually, it seems that Dawkins uses the term in at least two fundamentally different ways; bu ..'
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Replicators don't. Replicate, that is. This is the shocking conclusion to which I have been forced by my attempt to figure out what precisely Richard Dawkins means by the term "replicator". Actually, it seems that Dawkins uses the term in at least two fundamentally different ways; but according to Dawkins ' own specification of the problem which the "replicator" concept was intended to solve (namely, what entities can qualify as things that evolutionary adaptations are "good for") then "replicators" turn out to be a special form of lineage (what I shall term a similarity lineage); and these, in turn, do not actually "replicate" (in Dawkins ' sense of the term) at all! Does this matter to the research programme of Artificial Life? Well yes, I believe it does. Dawkins has explicitly argued that there are principled reasons why Darwinian evolution, in any medium whatsoever, must rely on the participation of "replicators". Within limits I am inclined to agree. But it follows that, if we wish to realize artificial Darwinism, we had better be clear what a replicator actually is---and all the more so if it turns out that it doesn't..
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The demise of the standard ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

'.. The social systems of ants are far more variable than has traditionally been believed. In addition to variation in queen number and queen mating frequency, recent research has documented such bizarre phenomena as the parthenogenetic production of females from unfertilized eggs or genetic caste deter ..'
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The social systems of ants are far more variable than has traditionally been believed. In addition to variation in queen number and queen mating frequency, recent research has documented such bizarre phenomena as the parthenogenetic production of females from unfertilized eggs or genetic caste determination. All these affect the genetic structure of ant societies, and it appears that in a large percentage of species colonies do not consist of a single, singly mated mother and her sterile worker offspring. Though it has long been known that kin selection for reproductive altruism can work well without a relatedness value between workers of 0.75, the recent upsurge of discussions about the role of relatedness in kin selection theory may have confused both myrmecologists and non-specialists. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the large range of ant reproductive systems and to correct some misconceptions about the role of the magic value 0.75 in kin selection theory.
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