Keetru - collection of Bharathidasan's poems. பாரதிதாசன் கவிதைகள்: கருத்துரைப் பாட்டு.
Virtually all subsequent, especially, Thiruvalluvar, also known as Valluvar, was a celebrated poet and. He is best known for authoring, a collection of couplets on ethics, political and economical matters, and love. The text is considered as one of the finest works of the. Much of the information about Valluvar comes from legendary accounts, and little is known with certainty about his family background, religious affiliation, or birthplace. He lived in present-day state of, and his is dated variously from 4th century BCE to 7th century CE based on the traditional accounts and the linguistic analyses of his writings.
Contents. Background There is negligible authentic information about the life of Valluvar. In fact, neither his actual name nor the original title of his book can be determined with certainty. Thirukkuṛaḷ itself does not name its author. Thee name Thiruvalluvar was first mentioned in the later text (10th century).
One tradition claims that he was a weaver. Another theory is that he must have been from the agricultural caste of, because he extols agriculture. speculated that 'valluva' in his name is a variation of 'vallabha', the designation of a royal officer. derived his name from 'valluvan' (a Paraiyar caste of royal drummers), and theorized that he was 'the chief of the proclaiming boys analogous to a trumpet-major of an army'.
The poem Kapilar Akaval (or Ahaval), purportedly written by, describes its author as a brother of Valluvar. It states that they were children of a woman named Ati (Adi) and a named Pakavan (Bhagwan). The poem claims that the couple had seven children, including three sons (Thiruvalluvar, Kapilar, and Atikaman) and four sisters (Awai, Uppai, Uruvai, and Velli). However, this legendary account is spurious. Dates Kapilar Ahaval to 15th century CE, based on its language. Various biographies mention the name of Valluvar's wife as 'Vasuki', but such details are of doubtful historicity.
Called Valluvar 'the greatest poet of South India', but according to, he does not seem to have been a poet. According to Zvelebil, while the author handles the very skillfully, the Tirukkuṛaḷ rarely features 'true and great poetry', which appears only in a few places, notably in the third book (pleasure). This suggests that Valluvar's main aim was not to produce a work of art, rather an instructive text focused on wisdom, justice, and ethics. Date The Tirukkuṛaḷ has been dated variously from 300 BCE to 7th century CE. According to traditional accounts, it was the last work of the third, and was subjected to a divine test (which it passed).
The scholars who believe this tradition, such as Somasundara Bharathiar and M Rajamanickam, date the text to as early as 300 BCE. Historian assigned it to the early 1st century CE. Linguist is certain that Tirukkuṛaḷ does not belong to the period, and dates it to somewhere between 450 and 500 CE. His estimate is based on the language of the text, its allusions to the earlier works, and its borrowing from some Sanskrit treatises. Zvelebil notes that the text features several grammatical innovations, that are absent in the older.
The text also features a higher number of compared to these older texts. According to Zvelebil, besides being part of the ancient Tamil literary tradition, the author was also a part of the 'one great Indian ethical, didactic tradition', as a few of his verses seem to be translations of the verses in Sanskrit texts such as and 's. Assigned the work to c.
650 CE, believing that it borrowed from some Sanskrit works of 6th century CE. Zvelebil disagrees with this assessment, pointing out that some of the words that Pillai believed to be Sanskrit loan words have now been proved to be of origin by and. With the exact date of Valluvar still under debate, taking the latest of the estimated dates, the is using 31 BCE as the year of Valluvar, as suggested by, from 18 January 1935. Thus the Valluvar year is calculated by adding 31 to any year of the common era. Birthplace.
A temple for Thiruvalluvar in The poem Kapilar Akaval states that Valluvar was born on the top of an oil-nut tree in Mayilapuram ( in ). On the other hand, the poem number 21 of Tiruvalluva Maalai claims that he was born in.
In 2005, a 3-member research team from the Historical and Cultural Research Centre (KHCRC) claimed that Valluvar was born in Thirunayanarkurichi, a village in present-day. Their claim was based on an old tribal leader who told them that Valluvar was a king who ruled the 'Valluvanadu' territory in the hilly tracts of the Kanyakumari district.
Religion Valluvar is generally thought to have belonged to either. Valluvar's treatment of the concept of or, which is the principal concept of both these religions, bolsters this. In particular, his treatment of the chapters on (or ) (Chapters 26 and 32) and (Chapter 33) reflects the Jain precepts, where these are stringently enforced. The three parts that the Kural literature is divided into, namely, aram (virtue), porul (wealth) and inbam (love), aiming at attaining veedu (ultimate salvation), follow, respectively, the four foundations of Hinduism, namely, and. His mentioning of God in couplets 610 and 1103 and in couplets 167, 408, 519, 565, 568, 616, and 617 hints the beliefs of Valluvar. Other eastern beliefs of the poet found in the book include previous birth and rebirth, seven births, and some ancient Indian astrological concepts, among others.
However, owing to the Kural text's non-denominational nature, almost every religious group in, including, has claimed the work and its author as one of their own. Jainism believes that the ethics of the Tirukkuṛaḷ reflect the moral code (e.g. Tirukkuṛaḷ 251-260 talks about vegetarianism, and Tirukkuṛaḷ 321-333 talks against killing).
Zvelebil states that the text features 'several purely Jaina technical terms', such as the following epithets of God:. Malarmicaiyekinan ( Tirukkuṛaḷ 3), 'he who walked upon the lotus flower'. Aravaliyantanan ( Tirukkuṛaḷ 3), 'the Brahmin who had the wheel of dharma'. Enkunattan ( Tirukkuṛaḷ 9), 'one of the eight-fold qualities'. Atipakavan ( Tirukkuṛaḷ 1), 'the Primeval Lord' Zvelebil notes that even the 13th century Hindu scholar, who wrote a commentary on Tirukkuṛaḷ, accepted that such epithets are applicable only to the Jain.
Some other epithets mentioned in the text also reflect a 'strong ascetic flavour' characteristic of Jainism:. Ventutal ventamai ilan ( Tirukkuṛaḷ 4), 'he who has neither desire nor aversion'. Porivayil aintavittan ( Tirukkuṛaḷ 6), 'he who has destroyed the gates of the five senses' Zvelebil further states that Valluvar seems to have been 'cognizant of the latest developments' in Jainism. Zvelebil theorizes that he was probably 'a learned Jain with eclectic leanings', who was well-acquainted with the earlier Tamil literature, and also had some knowledge of the Sanskrit texts. Hinduism. Statue of Valluvar at Kanyakumari Multiple sects have claimed Valluvar as one of their own and have tried to align his verses with their own teachings.
Have characterised Valluvar as a devotee of Shiva and have installed his images in their temples. Buddhism Anti-caste activist, who converted to, claimed that Valluvar was originally called 'Tiruvalla Nayanar', and was a Buddhist. Thass described him as follows: Tiruvalla Nayanar was born in Madurai, as the son of King Kanchan and Queen Upakesi.
When he grew up, the prince wandered across many countries, until he joined a Buddhist at Thinnanur. There, he learned about the Buddhist doctrine from his guru Chakaya Munivar. Thass further contended that the name 'Tirukkuṛaḷ' is a reference to the Buddhist. He claims that Valluvar's book was originally called Tirikural ('Three Kurals'), because it adhered to the three Buddhist scriptures, and. According to Thass, the legend that presents Valluvar as the son of a father and a Paraiyar mother was invented by Brahmins, who wanted to Hinduise a Buddhist text. Christianity Christian missionary claimed that the Tirukkuṛaḷ shows influence, particularly from the.
He theorized that Valluvar came into contact with Christian teachers such as in Mayilapur and incorporated the ideas from the Christian scriptures in his text. Pope praises the Kural as an 'echo of the 'Sermon on the Mount.' ' In the Introduction to his English translation of the Kural, Pope even claims, 'I cannot feel any hesitation in saying that the Christian Scriptures were among the sources from which the poet derived his inspiration.' Zvelebil states that Pope was 'rather overenthusiastic in discovering strong traces of Christianity' in Tirukkuṛaḷ and dismisses Pope's hypothesis as based on 'vague impressions'. Since the 1960s, some South Indian Christians led by M. Deivanayagam at the, have even characterized Valluvar as a disciple of.
According to this theory, Thomas visited present-day Chennai, where Valluvar listened to his lectures on the. Several Tamil scholars, both Christian and Hindu, have criticized this claim as inaccurate. Nevertheless, the chapters on the ethics of (Chapter 26) and (Chapter 33), which the Kural emphasizes emphatically and unambiguously unlike the or other religious texts, suggest that the ethics of the Kural is rather a reflection of the than of. Literary works. Main article: Tirukkuṛaḷ is the chief work attributed to Valluvar. It is one of the most revered ancient works in the Tamil language.
It contains 1330 couplets, which are divided into 133 sections of 10 couplets each. The first 38 sections are about ethics ( ), the next 70 about political and economic matters ( ), and the rest are about love ( ). The text has been translated into several languages, including a translation into Latin by in 1699, which helped make the work known to European intellectuals. Valluvar is also believed to be the author of two Tamil texts on medicine, Gnana Vettiyan (1500 verses) and Pancharathnam (500 verses), although many scholars claim that they were by a later author with the same name, since they appear to have been written in the 16th and 17th centuries. These books, 'Pancharathnam' and 'Gnana Vettiyan', contribute to Tamil science, literature and other ayurvedic medicines. In addition to these, there are 15 other texts that are attributed to Valluvar, namely, Rathna Sigamani (800 verses), Karpam (300 verses), Nadhaantha Thiravukol (100 verses), Naadhaantha Saaram (100 verses), Vaithiya Suthram (100 verses), Karpaguru Nool (50 verses), Muppu Saathiram (30 verses), Vaadha Saathiram (16 verses), Muppu Guru (11 verses), Kavuna Mani (100 verses), Aeni Yettram (100 verses), Guru Nool (51 verses), Sirppa Chinthamani (a text on astrology), Tiruvalluvar Gyanam, and Tiruvalluvar Kanda Tirunadanam. Memorials.
In A temple-like memorial to Valluvar, was built in in 1976. This monument complex consists of structures usually found in, including a carved from three blocks of, and a shallow, rectangular pond. The auditorium adjoining the memorial is one of the largest in Asia and can seat up to 4,000 people. There is a 133-foot tall statue of Valluvar erected at at the southern tip of the Indian subcontinent, where the, the, and the Indian Ocean converge. The 133 feet denote Tirukkuṛaḷ's 133 chapters or athikarams and the show of three fingers denote the three themes, and, that is, the sections on morals, wealth and love. The statue was designed by, a temple architect from Tamil Nadu. On 9 August 2009, a statue was unveiled in Ulsoor, near, also making it the first of its kind in India for a poet of a local language to be installed in its near states other than his own home land.
There is also a statue of Valluvar outside the in, London. The celebrates the 15th (16th on leap years) of January (the 2nd of the month of 'Thai' as per Tamil Calendar) as Thiruvalluvar Day in the poet's honour, as part of the celebrations. See also., pp. 449-482., p. 124-125. ^, p. 4341. Thiruvalluvar Ninaivu Malar, 1935, p. 26 April 2005.
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திருவள்ளுவ மாலை மூலமும் எளிய உரை விளக்கமும் Tiruvalluva Maalai: Moolamum Eliya Urai Vilakkamum (in Tamil) (1 ed.). Chennai: Manimekalai Prasuram. ^ David Abram; Rough Guides (Firm) (2003). Rough Guides. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
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