Catalog:Section one. Definitions 3. Nomenclature 4. Information & requirements to be agreed/documented 5. Categories of vessels and tanks Section two.
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Materials and design loadings 6. Construction of chemical barrier 8. Flammability 9. Allowable and design unit loadings Section three.
Design basis 12. Design details 13.
Laminate design and thickness 14. Cylindrical and spherical shells 15. Shells subjected to wind loading 16. Rectangular tanks 17. Flat panels 18. Circumferential seams 20. Openings, branches and compensation 21.
Bolted flanged circular connections 22. Structures and fittings 24. Local load analysis Section four. Construction and workmanship 25. Approval of design and construction details 26. Conditions in works 27. Manufacturing procedure 28.
Constructional details 29. Tolerances Section five.
Inspection and tests 31. Inspection and test requirements 32. Certificate of inspection and testing 33. Principle stages of inspection 34.
Welding procedure and welder approval tests for thermoplastics linings 35. Production weld tests for thermoplastics linings 36. Laminating procedures and approval of operators 37.
Production samples for mechanical tests on laminates 38. Prototype testing 39. Testing after completion of fabrication 40. Marking Section six. Preparation for shipment 42. Transportation 44. Temporary storage 45.
Installation 46. Support of associated pipework Appendices A. General information on the materials used for reinforced plastics construction B. Methods of test C.
Effects of materials on water quality D. Worked examples of the design calculations specified in sections two and three E. Selection procedure for factor k2 F. Design calculation for tank and vessel anchorage G.
Stresses from local loads, etc.: recommended methods of calculation H. Recommended supports for vertical vessels and tanks J.
Design of metallic lifting lugs and trunnions K. Bibliography Tables 1.
Nomenclature, symbols and units 2. Minimum categories of vessel or tank 3.
Design documentation and drawing requirements 4. Quality control: tests and records 5. Minimum properties of reinforced laminate layers 6. Factor relating to method of manufacture 7. Factors to be applied to the design unit loading of continuous rovings for different winding angles 8. Deflection & bending moment constants - flat plates 9. Deflection and bending moment constants for central local loads on rectangular flat plates 10.
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Alpha/beta constants for sector & triangular plates 11. Shape factor for domed ends 12. Shape factors for conical ends - figure 12(a) 13. Shape factors for conical ends - figure 12(b) 14.
Flange and bolt details 15. Recommended design stress values for flange bolting materials 16. Permissible limits for laminate defects 17.
Tolerance for shells 18. Values of K1 and K2 Figures 1. Factor relating to temperature, k3 2. Factor relating to cyclic loading, k4 3. Unit modulus/winding angle 4. Four typical examples of laminate construction (without thermoplastics lining) 5. Relationship between thickness and glass content 6.
Single taper blending at changes of thickness (suitable for vessels with or without thermoplastics linings) 7. Double taper blending at changes of thickness (suitable for vessels without thermoplastics linings) 8. Effective length between stiffeners under external pressure 9. Type 1 edge fixings 10. Type 2 edge fixings 11. Domed ends 12. Conical ends and reducing sections 13.
Blind flanges: general 14. Blind flanges: not suitable for vacuum vessels 15.
Shape factor for semi-ellipsoidal ends convex to pressure 16. Lined and unlined tanks, knuckle radius 30 mm to 150 mm (preferred construction) 17. Lined tanks, fabric-backed liner without a formed knuckle 18. Typical main seam joints for vessels without thermoplastics linings 19. Typical main seam joint for vessels with thermoplastics linings 20. Diagrams of typical branches 21.
Arrangement of branch overlay for long branches 22. Gussets for branches 23. Pads for vessels 24. Flange construction 25. Details of flanges for thermoplastics-lined GRP vessels 26. Full faced flange with soft gasket 27. Typical anchorage arrangements for flat-bottomed tanks (brackets or ring) 28.
Supports for drop-through vessels and tanks 29. Support arrangements for base-supported vertical vessels and tanks 30. Supports for horizontal vessels and tanks 31. N ply laminated beam 32.
Tolerances for cylindrical shells 33. Chart of apparent extension, Z, versus force, F 34. Test specimen for the determination of lap shear strength of laminate 35. Test specimen for the determination of shear strength of bond between thermoplastics lining and laminate 36. Test for determination of peel strength of bond 37. Test specimen for shear strength of sandwich panel 38.
Assembly of test specimen and grips 39. Biaxial design envelopes 40. Approximate values of Kc2 41. Graphical determination of k2: example D 42. Graphical determination of k2: example E 43. Restriction on vessel/attachment geometry 44.
Vessel with central radial load 45. Vessel with radial load out of centre 46. Graph for finding equivalent length Le 47. Chart for finding 64 r/t (Cx/r) squared 48.
Cylindrical shells with radial load: circumferential moment per millimetre width 49. Cylindrical shells with radial load: longitudinal moment per millimetre width 50.
Cylindrical shells with radial load: circumferential membrane force per millimetre width 51. Cylindrical shells with radial load: longitudinal membrane force per millimetre width 52. Circumferential bending moment due to a radial line load variation round circumference 53. Longitudinal moment from radial line load variation round circumference 54. Circumferential membrane stress from radial line load variation round circumference 55. Longitudinal membrane forces from radial line load variation round circumference 56. Circumferential bending moment due to a radial line load variation along cylinder 57.
Longitudinal moment due to a radial line load variation along cylinder 58. Circumferential membrane forces due to a radial line load variation along cylinder 59. Longitudinal membrane forces due to a radial line load variation along cylinder 60. Maximum radial deflection of a cylindrical shell subjected to a radial load, W, uniformly distributed over a square 2C x 2C 61.
Maximum radial deflection of a cylindrical shell subjected to a radial load, W, uniformly distributed over a square 2C x 2C 62. Graphs for finding the square 2C1 x 2C1 equivalent to a rectangular loading area 2Cx x 2Cphi 63.
Circumferential moment 64. Longitudinal moment 65.
Chart for finding s and u 66. Spherical shell subjected to a radial load 67. Deflections of a spherical shell subjected to a radial load, W 68. Moments and membrane forces in a spherical shell subjected to a radial load, W 69. Spherical shell subjected to an external moment 70. Deflections of a spherical shell subjected to an external moment, M 71.
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BS4994 (formally: 4994:1987) is the 'specification for the design and construction of vessels and in '. It specifies a code of practice for use by manufacturers of such containers. With the publication of BS EN 13121-3, BS 4994:1987 Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in reinforced plastics is declared obsolescent, which will still cover those tanks still in service as tanks made from GRP are generally accepted to have a long working life.
Dual laminate construction, simple FRP with glass mats, or a combination of unidirectional filament winding are common. DUAL LAMINATE: A lining material, preferably 3mm to 5mm thick sheet functions as a corrosion barrier. This thermoplastic liner is not considered to contribute mechanical strength.
FRP which is constructed over this lining provides the strength requirements for materials to withstand design conditions like pressure, vacuum, hydrostatic load, etc. The choice of thermoplastic is based on the chemical corrosion requirement of the equipment., are used as common thermoplastic liners. FRP (GRP): Glass mats in the form of chopped strand mat and woven roving is most common in hand lay-up method.
These mats are laid on the mold and impregnated with 'initiated' resins like polyester, epoxy, vinyl ester, bisphenol epoxy vinyl ester, etc. The choice of resin is based on the chemical corrosion requirement of the equipment.
An earlier version of the specification was BS 4994:1973. NEW LOAD UNITS: It is to avoid the uncertainty associated with specifying the thickness alone, that BS4994 introduced the concept of 'unit properties'. It is property per unit width, per unit mass of reinforcement.
For example, UNIT STRENGTH is defined as load in Newtons per millimeter (of laminate width) for a layer consisting of 1 kg of glass per square meter, i.e., the unit is N/mm per kg/m2 glass. This standard still remains as most popular reference material for Further reading. BS 4994:1987 – Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in reinforced plastics. British Standards. ESR Technology. Archived from on 2007-05-12. — a case study of the design process of a cylindrical vessel, using the BS 4994 methodology.