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Padi open water diver manual pdf torrent Advanced Open Water Diver - pedia Advanced Open Water Diver (AOWD) is a scuba diving certification level provided by several diver training agencies, such as Professional Association of Diving Instructors ( PADI ), and Scuba Schools International (SSI). Dec 23, 2017 - PADI Open Water Diver Touch Watch, listen, read, scroll, tap and interact while you learn to scuba dive with PADI Open Water Diver Touch TM.

→ The 2018 FIFA World Cup was the 21st, an international tournament contested by the of the member associations of once every four years. It took place in Russia from 14 June to 15 July 2018. It was the first World Cup to be held in, and the 11th time that it had been held in Europe. At an estimated cost of over $14.2 billion, it was the most expensive World Cup. It was also the first World Cup to use the (VAR) system. The finals involved 32 teams, of which 31 came through, while the qualified automatically. Of the 32 teams, 20 had also appeared in the previous tournament in, while both and made their first appearances at a FIFA World Cup.

Surah yasin latin basa jawa. A total of 64 matches were played in 12 venues across 11 cities. The took place on 15 July at the in, between and. France won the match 4–2 to claim their, marking the fourth consecutive title won by a European team.

The 100- commemorative banknote celebrates the 2018 FIFA World Cup. It features an image of Soviet goalkeeper. The began in January 2009, and national associations had until 2 February 2009 to register their interest. Initially, nine countries placed bids for the 2018 FIFA World Cup, but Mexico later withdrew from proceedings, and Indonesia's bid was rejected by FIFA in February 2010 after the Indonesian government failed to submit a letter to support the bid. During the bidding process, the three remaining non- nations (Australia, Japan, and the United States) gradually withdrew from the 2018 bids, and the UEFA nations were thus ruled out of the 2022 bid. As such, there were eventually four bids for the 2018 FIFA World Cup, two of which were joint bids: England, Russia, Netherlands/Belgium, and Portugal/Spain.

The 22-member convened in on 2 December 2010 to vote to select the hosts of both tournaments. Russia won the right to be the 2018 host in the second round of voting. The Portugal/Spain bid came second, and that from Belgium/Netherlands third. England, which was bidding to host its second tournament, was eliminated in the first round. The voting results were as follows: 2018 FIFA bidding (majority 12 votes) Bidders Votes Round 1 Round 2 Russia 9 13 Portugal / Spain 7 7 Belgium / Netherlands 4 2 England 2 Eliminated Criticism The English and others raised concerns of bribery on the part of the Russian team and corruption from FIFA members. They claimed that four members of the executive committee had requested bribes to vote for England, and had said that it had already been arranged before the vote that Russia would win. The 2014, an internal investigation led by, was withheld from public release by, FIFA's head of adjudication on ethical matters.

Eckert instead released a shorter revised summary, and his (and therefore FIFA's) reluctance to publish the full report caused Garcia to resign in protest. Because of the controversy, the FA refused to accept Eckert's absolving of Russia from blame, with calling for a re-examination of the affair and calling for a boycott of the World Cup.

Teams Qualification. Main article: For the first time in the history of the FIFA World Cup, all eligible nations – the 209 minus automatically qualified hosts Russia – applied to enter the qualifying process. And were later disqualified before playing their first matches, while and, who joined FIFA on 13 May 2016 after the qualifying draw but before European qualifying had begun, also entered the competition.

Places in the tournament were allocated to continental confederations, with the allocation unchanged from the 2014 World Cup. The first qualification game, between and, began in on 12 March 2015 as part of the, and the main qualifying draw took place at the Konstantinovsky Palace in, on 25 July 2015. Of the 32 nations qualified to play at the 2018 FIFA World Cup, 20 countries competed at the previous tournament in. Both Iceland and Panama qualified for the first time, with the former becoming the to reach the World Cup. Other teams returning after absences of at least three tournaments include: Egypt, returning to the finals after their last appearance in 1990; Morocco, who last competed in 1998; Peru, returning after 1982; and Senegal, competing for the second time after reaching the quarter-finals in 2002. It is the first time three (Denmark, Iceland and Sweden) and four (Egypt, Morocco, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia) have qualified for the World Cup.

Notable countries that failed to qualify include four-time champions (for the first time since 1958), three-time runners-up and third placed in 2014 the (for the first time since 2002), and four reigning continental champions: winners, two-time champions and runners-up, winners, and champions (for the first time since 1986). The other notable qualifying streaks broken were for and, who had both made the previous three tournaments. Note: Numbers in parentheses indicate positions in the at the time of the tournament. Italian World Cup winner in Moscow at the 2018 World Cup draw The draw was held on 1 December 2017 at 18:00 at the in. The 32 teams were drawn into 8 groups of 4, by selecting one team from each of the 4 ranked pots. For the draw, the teams were allocated to four pots based on the of October 2017.

Pot 1 contained the hosts Russia (who were automatically assigned to position A1) and the best seven teams, pot 2 contained the next best eight teams, and so on for pots 3 and 4. This was different from previous draws, when only pot 1 was based on FIFA rankings while the remaining pots were based on geographical considerations. However, teams from the same confederation still were not drawn against each other for the group stage, except that two UEFA teams could be in each group. Pot 1 Pot 2 Pot 3 Pot 4 (65) (hosts) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (10) (11) (12) (13) (16) (17) (18) (19) (21) (22) (25) (28) (30) (32) (34) (38) (41) (43) (44) (48) (49) (62) (63) Squads. Players after the against France Initially, each team had to name a preliminary squad of 30 players but, in February 2018, this was increased to 35.

From the preliminary squad, the team had to name a final squad of 23 players (three of whom must be goalkeepers) by 4 June. Players in the final squad may be replaced for serious injury up to 24 hours prior to kickoff of the team's first match and such replacements do not need to have been named in the preliminary squad. For players named in the 35-player preliminary squad, there was a mandatory rest period between 21 and 27 May 2018, except for those involved in the played on 26 May.

VAR in use in during the Group D match between Nigeria and Iceland, at Volgograd. Shortly after the 's decision to incorporate (VARs) into the, on 16 March 2018, the took the much-anticipated step of approving the use of VAR for the first time in a FIFA World Cup tournament. VAR operations for all games are operating from a single headquarters in Moscow, which receives live video of the games and are in radio contact with the on-field referees. Systems are in place for communicating VAR-related information to broadcasters and visuals on stadiums' large screens are used for the fans in attendance.

VAR had a significant impact in several games. On 15 June 2018, 's goal against Portugal became the first World Cup goal based on a VAR decision; the first penalty as a result of a VAR decision was awarded to France in their match against Australia on 16 June and resulted in a goal. A record number of penalties were awarded in the tournament, with this phenomenon being partially attributed to VAR. Overall, the new technology has been both praised and criticised by commentators.

FIFA declared the implementation of VAR a success after the first week of competition. Further information: Wikimedia Commons has media related to. Russia proposed the following host cities:, and. Most cities are in, while and are very close to the Europe-Asia border, to reduce travel time for the teams in the huge country. The bid evaluation report stated: 'The Russian bid proposes 13 host cities and 16 stadiums, thus exceeding FIFA's minimum requirement.

Three of the 16 stadiums would be renovated, and 13 would be newly constructed.' In October 2011, Russia decreased the number of stadiums from 16 to 14.

Construction of the proposed stadium in the Moscow region was cancelled by the regional government, and also in the capital, was competing with over which would be constructed first. The final choice of host cities was announced on 29 September 2012.

The number of cities was further reduced to 11 and number of stadiums to 12 as Krasnodar and Yaroslavl were dropped from the final list. Of the 12 stadiums used for the tournament, 3 (Luzhniki, Yekaterinburg and Sochi) have been extensively renovated and the other 9 stadiums to be used are brand new; $11.8 billion has been spent on hosting the tournament. Sepp Blatter stated in July 2014 that, given the concerns over the completion of venues in Russia, the number of venues for the tournament may be reduced from 12 to 10. He also said, 'We are not going to be in a situation, as is the case of one, two or even three stadiums, where it is a problem of what you do with these stadiums'. Reconstruction of the Yekaterinburg Central Stadium in January 2017 In October 2014, on their first official visit to Russia, FIFA's inspection committee and its head Chris Unger visited St Petersburg, Sochi, Kazan and both Moscow venues. They were satisfied with the progress.

On 8 October 2015, FIFA and the Local Organising Committee agreed on the official names of the stadiums used during the tournament. Of the twelve venues used, the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow and the Saint Petersburg Stadium – the two largest stadiums in Russia – were used most, both hosting seven matches. Sochi, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara all hosted six matches, including one quarter-final match each, while the Otkrytiye Stadium in Moscow and Rostov-on-Don hosted five matches, including one round-of-16 match each. Volgograd, Kaliningrad, Yekaterinburg and Saransk all hosted four matches, but did not host any knockout stage games.

Exterior of Otkrytie Arena in Moscow A total of twelve stadiums in eleven Russian cities were built and renovated for the FIFA World Cup. Kaliningrad: Kaliningrad Stadium.

The first piles were driven into the ground in September 2015. On 11 April 2018 the new stadium hosted its first match. Kazan: Kazan Arena.

The stadium was built for the 2013 Summer Universiade. It has since hosted the 2015 World Aquatics Championship and the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup. The stadium serves as a home arena to.

Moscow: Luzhniki Stadium. The largest stadium in the country was closed for renovation in 2013.

The stadium was commissioned in November 2017. Moscow: Spartak Stadium. The stadium is a home arena to its namesake.

In accordance with the FIFA requirements, during the 2018 World Cup it is called Spartak Stadium instead of its usual name Otkritie Arena. The stadium hosted its first match on 5 September 2014. Nizhny Novgorod: Nizhny Novgorod Stadium. The construction of the Nizhny Novgorod Stadium commenced in 2015. The project was completed in December 2017. Rostov-on-Don: Rostov Arena. The stadium is located on the left bank of the Don River.

The stadium construction was completed on 22 December 2017. Saint Petersburg: Saint Petersburg Stadium. The construction of the stadium commenced in 2007.

The project was officially completed on 29 December 2016. The stadium has hosted games of the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup and will serve as a venue for. Samara: Samara Arena. The construction officially started on 21 July 2014.

The project was completed on 21 April 2018. Saransk: Mordovia Arena. The stadium in Saransk was scheduled to be commissioned in 2012 in time for the opening of the all-Russian Spartakiad, but the plan was revised. The opening was rescheduled to 2017. The arena hosted its first match on 21 April 2018. Sochi: Fisht Stadium.

The stadium hosted the opening and closing ceremonies of the. Afterwards, it was renovated in preparation for the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup and 2018 World Cup. Volgograd: Volgograd Arena. The main arena of Volgograd was built on the demolished site, at the foot of the Mamayev Kurgan memorial complex. The stadium was commissioned on 3 April 2018. Yekaterinburg: Ekaterinburg Arena. The Central Stadium of Yekaterinburg has been renovated for the FIFA World Cup.

The arena's stands have a capacity of 35,000 spectators. The renovation project was completed in December 2017. (Spartak Stadium) (Saint Petersburg Stadium) (Fisht Stadium) Capacity: 78,011 Capacity: 44,190 Capacity: 64,468 Capacity: 44,287. Scale model of the. Construction began in 2015. At an estimated cost of over $14.2 billion as of June 2018, it is the most expensive World Cup in history, surpassing the cost of the in Brazil. The had originally earmarked a of around $20 billion which was later slashed to $10 billion for the preparations of the World Cup, of which half is spent on transport infrastructure.

As part of the program for preparation to the 2018 FIFA World Cup, a federal sub-program 'Construction and Renovation of Transport Infrastructure' was implemented with a total budget of 352.5 billion rubles, with 170.3 billion coming from the federal budget, 35.1 billion from regional budgets, and 147.1 billion from investors. The biggest item of federal spending was the aviation infrastructure (117.8 billion rubles). Construction of new hotels was a crucial area of infrastructure development in the World Cup host cities. Costs continued to balloon as preparations were underway. Infrastructure spending in was upgraded with automated air traffic control systems, modern surveillance, navigation, communication, control, and meteorological support systems.

In was upgraded with radio-engineering tools for flight operation and received its second runway strip. Received a new navigation system; the city also got two new hotels, Mercure Saransk Centre (Accor Hotels) and Four Points by Sheraton Saransk (Starwood Hotels) as well as few other smaller accommodation facilities. In, new tram lines were laid.

In was upgraded with radio navigation and weather equipment. Renovation and upgrade of radio-engineering tools for flight operation was completed in the airports of, Yekaterinburg, and. On 27 March, the Ministry of Construction Industry, Housing and Utilities Sector of Russia reported that all communications within its area of responsibility have been commissioned. The last facility commissioned was a waste treatment station in Volgograd. In Yekaterinburg, where four matches are hosted, hosting costs increased to over 7.4 billion rubles, over-running the 5.6 billion rubles originally allocated from the state and regional budget. Volunteer flag bearers on the field prior to 's (flag depicted) group stage match against Volunteer applications to the Russia 2018 Local Organising Committee opened on 1 June 2016.

The 2018 FIFA World Cup Russia Volunteer Program received about 177,000 applications, and engaged a total of 35,000 volunteers. They received training at 15 Volunteer Centres of the Local Organising Committee based in 15 universities, and in Volunteer Centres in the host cities. Preference, especially in the key areas, was given to those with knowledge of foreign languages and volunteering experience, but not necessarily to Russian nationals. Transport Free services were offered for ticketholders during the World Cup, including additional trains linking between host cities, as well as services such as bus service within them. Launching of a 1,000 days countdown in Moscow The full schedule was announced by FIFA on 24 July 2015 (without kick-off times, which were confirmed later). On 1 December 2017, following the final draw, six kick-off times were adjusted by FIFA. Russia was placed in position A1 in the group stage and played in the opening match at the in on 14 June against, the two lowest-ranked teams of the tournament at the time of the final draw.

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The Luzhniki Stadium also hosted the second semi-final on 11 July and the final on 15 July. The in hosted the first semi-final on 10 July and the third place play-off on 14 July.

Opening ceremony. Soprano and pop singer singing ' at the opening ceremony The opening ceremony took place on Thursday, 14 June 2018, at the in Moscow, preceding the between hosts and.

Former Brazilian World Cup-winning striker walked out with a child wearing a Russia 2018 shirt. English pop singer then performed two songs before he and Russian soprano performed a duet while other performers emerged, dressed in the flags of all 32 teams and carrying a sign bearing the name of each nation. Dancers were also present. Ronaldo returned with the official match ball of the 2018 World Cup which was sent into space with the crew in March and came back to Earth in early June.

Group stage Competing countries were divided into eight groups of four teams (groups A to H). Teams in each group played one another in a basis, with the top two teams of each group advancing to the. Ten European teams and four South American teams progressed to the knockout stage, together with Japan and Mexico. For the first time since, Germany (reigning champions) did not advance past the first round. For the first time since, no African team progressed to the second round.

For the first time, the fair play criteria came into use, when Japan qualified over Senegal due to having received fewer yellow cards. Only one match, France v Denmark, was goalless.

Until then there were a record 36 straight games in which at least one goal was scored. All times listed below are. Tiebreakers The ranking of teams in the group stage was determined as follows:. Points obtained in all group matches;. Goal difference in all group matches;. Number of goals scored in all group matches;.

Points obtained in the matches played between the teams in question;. Goal difference in the matches played between the teams in question;. Number of goals scored in the matches played between the teams in question;. Fair play points in all group matches (only one deduction could be applied to a player in a single match).

Main article: In total, only four players were sent off in the entire tournament, the fewest since. Technical director stated a belief that this was due to the introduction of, since players would know that they would not be able to get away with anything under the new system. France lifting the The following were given at the conclusion of the tournament. The Golden Boot (top scorer), Golden Ball (best overall player) and Golden Glove (best goalkeeper) awards were all sponsored. Golden Ball Silver Ball Bronze Ball Golden Boot Silver Boot Bronze Boot (6 goals, 0 assists) (4 goals, 2 assists) (4 goals, 1 assist) Golden Glove Best Young Player FIFA Fair Play Award Additionally, FIFA.com shortlisted 18 goals for users to vote on as the tournaments' best. The poll closed on 23 July. The award was sponsored.

Goal of the Tournament Goalscorer Opponent Score Round 2–2 Dream Team As was the case during the 2010 and 2014 editions, FIFA did not release an official, but instead invited users of FIFA.com to elect their Fan Dream Team. Goalkeeper Defenders Midfielders Forwards FIFA also published an alternate team of the tournament based on player performances evaluated through statistical data. Goalkeeper Defenders Midfielders Forwards Prize money Prize money amounts were announced in October 2017.

Position Amount (million ) Per team Total Champions 38 38 Runner-up 28 28 Third place 24 24 Fourth place 22 22 5th–8th place (quarter-finals) 16 64 9th–16th place (round of 16) 12 96 17th–32nd place (group stage) 8 128 Total 400 Marketing. The typeface 'Dusha' used for branding Branding The tournament logo was unveiled on 28 October 2014 by cosmonauts at the and then projected onto Moscow's during an evening television programme.

Russian Sports Minister said that the logo was inspired by 'Russia's rich artistic tradition and its history of bold achievement and innovation', and FIFA President stated that it reflected the 'heart and soul' of the country. For the branding, Portuguese design agency Brandia Central created materials in 2014, with a typeface called Dusha (from, for soul) designed by Brandia Central and edited by Adotbelow of DSType Foundry in Portugal. Tournament mascot, wolf Zabivaka The for the tournament was unveiled 21 October 2016, and selected through a design competition among university students. A public vote was used to select from three finalists—a cat, a tiger, and a wolf. The winner, with 53% of approximately 1 million votes, was Zabivaka—an wolf dressed in the colours of the Russian national team.

Zabivaka's name is a portmanteau of the Russian words ('hothead') and ('to score'), and his official backstory states that he is an aspiring football player who is 'charming, confident and social'. Ticketing The first phase of ticket sales started on 14 September 2017, 12:00, and lasted until 12 October 2017. The general did not apply to participants and spectators, who were able to visit Russia without a visa right before and during the competition regardless of their citizenship.

Spectators were nonetheless required to register for a 'Fan-ID', a special photo identification pass. A Fan-ID was required to enter the country visa-free, while a ticket, Fan-ID and a valid passport were required to enter stadiums for matches. Fan-IDs also granted World Cup attendees free access to public transport services, including buses, and between host cities. Fan-ID was administered by the, who could revoke these accreditations at any time to 'ensure the defence capability or security of the state or public order'. Main article: Thirty-three footballers who are alleged to be part of the steroid program are listed in the. On 22 December 2017, it was reported that FIFA fired a doctor who had been investigating in Russian football.

On 22 May 2018 FIFA confirmed that the investigations concerning all Russian players named for the provisional squad of the FIFA World Cup in Russia had been completed, with the result that insufficient evidence was found to assert an anti-doping rule violation. FIFA's medical committee also decided that Russian personnel would not be involved in performing drug testing procedures at the tournament; the action was taken to reassure teams that the samples would remain untampered. Host selection The choice of Russia as host has been challenged.

Controversial issues have included the level of racism in Russian football, and discrimination against people in wider Russian society. Russia's involvement in the has also caused calls for the tournament to be moved, particularly following the. In 2014, FIFA President Sepp Blatter stated that 'the World Cup has been given and voted to Russia and we are going forward with our work'. Allegations of in the bidding processes for the 2018 and 2022 World Cups caused threats from England's to boycott the tournament. FIFA appointed, a US attorney, to investigate and produce on the corruption allegations. Although the report was never published, FIFA released a 42-page summary of its findings as determined by German judge. Eckert's summary cleared Russia and Qatar of any wrongdoing, but was denounced by critics as a whitewash.

Garcia criticised the summary as being 'materially incomplete' with 'erroneous representations of the facts and conclusions', and appealed to FIFA's Appeal Committee. The committee declined to hear his appeal, so Garcia resigned in protest of FIFA's conduct, citing a 'lack of leadership' and lack of confidence in the independence of Eckert. On 3 June 2015, the confirmed that the federal authorities were investigating the bidding and awarding processes for the 2018 and.

In an interview published on 7 June 2015, the head of FIFA's Audit And Compliance Committee, stated that 'should there be evidence that the awards to Qatar and Russia came only because of bought votes, then the awards could be cancelled'. And former British Prime Minister attended a meeting with FIFA vice-president in which a vote-trading deal for the right to host the 2018 World Cup in was discussed. Response to Skripal poisoning In response to the March 2018, British Prime Minister announced that no British ministers or members of the royal family would attend the World Cup, and issued a warning to any travelling England fans. Iceland diplomatically boycotted the World Cup.

Russia responded to the comments from the UK Parliament claiming that 'the west are trying to deny Russia the World Cup'. The denounced 's statements that compared the event to the held in as 'poisoned with venom of hate, unprofessionalism and boorishness' and 'unacceptable and unworthy' parallel towards Russia, a 'nation that '. The British and MPs had repeatedly warned English football fans and 'people of Asian or Afro-Caribbean descent' travelling to Russia of 'racist or homophobic intimidation, hooligan violence and anti-British hostility'.

English football fans who have travelled have said they have received a warm welcome from ordinary citizens after arriving in Russia. Critical reception.

Russia received widespread praise as World Cup hosts. Facilities—such as the refurbished (pictured)—were one aspect of Russia's success. At the close of the World Cup Russia was widely praised for its success in hosting the tournament, with Steve Rosenberg of the deeming it 'a resounding public relations success' for Putin, adding, 'The stunning new stadiums, free train travel to venues and the absence of crowd violence has impressed visiting supporters. Russia has come across as friendly and hospitable: a stark contrast with the country's authoritarian image. All the foreign fans I have spoken to are pleasantly surprised.'

FIFA President stated, 'Everyone discovered a beautiful country, a welcoming country, that is keen to show the world that everything that has been said before might not be true. A lot of preconceived ideas have been changed because people have seen the true nature of Russia.' Infantino has proclaimed Russia 2018 to be 'the best World Cup ever', as 98% of the stadiums were sold out, there were three billion viewers on TV all around the world and 7 million fans visited the fan fests. Broadcasting rights. Main article: FIFA, through several companies, sold the broadcasting rights for the 2018 FIFA World Cup to various local broadcasters. In the United States, the 2018 World Cup was the first men's World Cup whose English rights were held by, and Spanish rights held. The elimination of the US national team in qualifying led to concerns that US interest and viewership of this World Cup would be reduced (especially among 'casual' viewers interested in the US team), especially noting how much Fox paid for the rights, and that US games at the 2014 World Cup peaked at 16.5 million viewers.

During a launch event prior to the elimination, Fox stated that it had planned to place a secondary focus on the Mexican team in its coverage to take advantage of their popularity among US viewers (factoring ). Fox stated that it was still committed to broadcasting a significant amount of coverage for the tournament. In February 2018, Ukrainian rightsholder stated that it would not broadcast the World Cup. This came in the wake of growing boycotts of the tournament among the and sports minister.

Additionally, the Football Federation of Ukraine refused to accredit journalists for the World Cup and waived their quota of tickets. However, the Ukrainian state TV still broadcast the World Cup, and more than 4 million Ukrainians watched the opening match. Broadcast rights to the tournament in the Middle East were hampered by an ongoing over. Qatar is the home country of the region's rightsholder,.

Bahrain, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates cut diplomatic ties with Qatar over the matter. On 2 June 2018, beIN pulled its channels from and, but with service to the latter restored later that day. Etisalat subsequently announced that it would air the World Cup in the UAE, and continue to offer beIN normally and without interruptions. In Saudi Arabia, beIN's channels have been widely and illegally repackaged by a broadcaster identifying itself as beoutQ; while FIFA attempted to indirectly negotiate the sale of a package consisting of Saudi matches, as well as the opening and final games, they were unable to do so. On 12 July 2018, FIFA stated that it 'has engaged counsel to take legal action in Saudi Arabia and is working alongside other sports rights owners that have also been affected to protect its interests.'

Sponsorship FIFA partners FIFA World Cup sponsors African supporters Asian supporters European supporters.

Welcome to where scubbits dive deep! Please msg the mods with ideas, links, and info that can help our community grow. Just a warning, we want this community to be about sharing news, stories and experiences, questions and help, and diving photos and video - basically anything diving and dive lifestyle related. But, image meme posts will be removed without mercy, speared like a lionfish in the Caribbean and left on the reef of removed posts to be eaten by oblivion.

If you intend on posting any medically related questions, (like ascending to altitude after a dive) please refer either to your local barotrauma doctor, or call DAN at one of the numbers on the link below Remember that the vast majority of members here are NOT qualified to give accurate medical advice! Would you like a badge? Click on Edit user flair below on the right side and pick your certification level. (Green is nitrox, red is diver down) If you'd like a Dive Instructor badge you will have to PM a mod to prove you are a certified DI).

Getting Started with Diving FAQ Help us put together a guide for all the common questions and answers. From how to buy gear as someone new to the sport, to tips on tech diving, to how to become a dive professional, we want to compile a resource for divers of all experience levels. If you want equipment help that isn't covered by the FAQ, make sure to mention the kind of environment you would be diving in and your experience level. People frequently post lists of equipment and ask 'if its good', but equipment is dependent on the purpose/environment of the dive (are you in cold or warm water?

Do you want to get into cave, wreck, or sightseeing for critters). BUYING AND SELLING USED GEAR. Other reddits you might like:. (SFW). (SFW). Dive Certification Agencies:.

Medical Research and Assistance:. Than OP thinking he's capable of doing certain things What, you mean like rescue someone in an emergency situation?

Would you, in such a situation, rather be rescued by someone who has no skills whatsoever, or by someone who at least studied the rescue manual and maybe even practiced in private with a buddy? And this is the IMO a good argument why PADI should give out these essential books for free and charge more for the course instead: the goal should be to make diving as safe as possible, right? Reading a PDF = skills? PADI isn't a charity.

Why should they give anything out for free? The book is part of the course materials. Their goal is to provide certification, nothing more and nothing less. Our goal as divers is to surface alive every time having had an awesome time.

I would argue a sense of personal responsibility means you do what you can to make that happen, and perusing a PDF isn't enough. You're welcome to dive your way though, there are enough skills nazis on the Internet without me adding to their number! Reading a PDF = skills? You don't think it would benefit people to read how to rescue someone? Ditch their weights, turn them on their back, etc?

One more person having that information could save a life. Why should they give anything out for free? Let them charge the cost for printing the book for all I care. But as I said: I think they should charge the full cost for the course itself, not lure people into the cert with a 'cheap' offer only to then charge them an arm and a leg for the stupid course materials.

And perusing a PDF isn't enough Did you miss the point? I said if you can't afford it then it's better to at least have read the book. I have done the courses and have the paper manuals, but I have never been able to find them on on torrent sites. It's a pain to take all the books with my diving, especially with the diving gear. I emailed PADI to ask them WTF they do not make PDF's available to people who have completed the course, I pasted below what they said.

Anyway, I cut the spine off all the books with a table saw, and scanned them on the work bulk scanner. Now I have perfect PDF's in my Dropbox for when I travel. Handy, and recommended. Many thanks for your message and feedback. I do agree with you: Books and travellers do not go well together!

This is why in 2007 PADI launched the eLearning Service. You can do the theory remotely and the service includes a eCopy of the Manual. Service is offered for the PADI Open Water Diver, Advanced Open Water Diver, Rescued Diver, Divemaster, Enriched air Diver, Digital Underwater Photography and few more courses and programs. The Open Water Diver eLearning is even translated in various languages!

PADI Instructor and Dive Centers operate as standing-alone business hence they can chose which option to provide to their students. For your next PADI course I would suggest you to contact your Dive Center first and check with them if they support the eLearning Service. I will send an email to. to remind them about the eLearning option and that if they were offering you this option they may have given you a better Customer Services. Once more please accept my congratulation for your latest scuba diving achievements and many thanks for your feedback!